Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Service Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Service Marketing - Essay Example From the report it is clear that a service is an activity or benefit that one party can offer to another which is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. In the goods continuum the distinction between products and services is far from clear as one traverses from tangibility to intangibility. The lack of distinction is particularly prominent mid way through this continuum where tangibility and intangibility may gel indistinguishably. However the fact remains that the tangibility dimension of the offering is a critical distinction and can identify a service offering. For instance, in a hotel stay once the stay has been completed nothing tangible is left with customer for preservation except experience, hence hotel stay is a typical person processing service offering. This study stresses that services are not physical. They can neither be possessed nor seen or felt. The tangible indicators of service are few, if any, and they are not good enough indicators to reduce consumer uncertainty. This increases the work of service marketers who must diligently determine how to effectively communicate the service process and the final outcome the consumer will receive -most importantly the quality. The production of the services can't be separated from its consumption. For instance, the production and consumption of a medical examination happen together. One can not store services for future use.

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Lab Scale Preparation of Gypsum Wallboard

Lab Scale Preparation of Gypsum Wallboard STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND SIGNIFICANCE OF PROPOSED RESEARCH (State succinctly the problem which is to be addressed. Clearly outline the importance of the problem, the originality of the approach and the impact it may have on the field if successful. Give an overview of the broader significance as well as the immediate impact of this research.) The main purpose of this research is to create a gypsum wallboard with enhanced fire resistant property. Gypsum owns a property of combined water content, is a noncombustible and acts as effective fire proofing material. When heat from fire comes in contact with a plaster wall (or gypsum wallboard), it begins to lose combined water as steam thus making the hemihydrate form of gypsum (stucco) rehydrated and it reverts back to dihydrate. Wide range requirements such as fire resistant, increase moisture resistant can be achieved by the use of different calcining methods and additives. The wide applicability of gypsum is in construction. It is also used in the chemical industries In producing the fire resistant gypsum wallboards, the various properties of GWB like thermal, physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics are to be studied which plays a major role in controlling the spread of fire in buildings. Gypsum wallboard consists mainly of gypsum i.e. calcium sulfate dihydrate, CaSO4.2H2O. Calcium sulfate in nature is mostly available in two forms: Calcium sulfate dihydrate is commonly referred as gypsum, which is one of the oldest construction materials. It naturally occurs in sedimentary deposits from ancient sea beds. The most distinguishing feature of Gypsum is that it is moderately soluble in water at room temperature and exhibits a special feature of retrograde solubility i.e. gypsum becomes less soluble at elevated temperatures. Another form of calcium sulfate is the calcium sulfate anhydrite. At a temperature of 58 ËÅ ¡C Gypsum and Anhydrite coexist, also the anhydrite exhibits the strong retrograde property but it does not revert back to gypsum as its solubility decreases with increasing temperature. Gypsum wallboard is used to make interior walls and ceilings in residential and commercial applications that often require specific fire rated assemblies. Various types of gypsum wallboard are manufactured, with the most common variety and specialized varieties such as fire resistant, water resistant, and plaster lath. Combination of beta hemihydrates stucco, water and other additives form slurry which is used in the manufacture of the gypsum wallboard. Additives such as asphalt emulsion, vermiculite, chopped fiberglass and paper fiber impart to the wallboard characteristics such as water resistance, fire resistance and strength. The fire resistance property is mainly attributed to the absorption of energy related with the loss of hydrate water going from the dihydrate (CaSo4.2H2O) and from the hemihydrates to the anhydrous form (CaSo4). Impinging heat of gypsum wallboards initially operates to reverse the hydration reaction resulting in controlling the spread of fire and penetration of flame through set gypsum structures. Fire resistance can be achieved by using appropriate additives such as fiber, glass textile fibers, vermiculite, which expands when heated, which acts against the gypsum shrinkage. Because of its worldwide occurrence and huge potential reserves, however its uses are not considered basic to survival in a national emergency, gypsum is not considered a strategic mineral. This has permitted natural economic factors to prevail in the development of the mineral worldwide, which overall is a healthy situation that should continue to prevail. PLAN OF PROCEDURE (Outline the initial approach to the problem and its feasibility. Point out innovative features, relate it to previous work including pertinent references, and indicate how this plan may contribute to the solution of the broader problem proposed.) Gypsum manufacturing process consists of three main steps (1) rock preparation, (2) calcining and (3) formulating and manufacturing. Though we start with buying the gypsum material from one of the providers so the next important step ahead is the calcination process. Gypsum is usually referred to be CaSO4.2H2O. Calcium sulfate dIiydrate undergoes calcination to form hemihydrate (CaSO41/2H2O) or anhydrous form (CaSO4). Initially the calcination process was achieved by heating the raw gypsum material in an open environment, later on with the development in science calcination was achieved by heating the gypsum material in a kiln. Kinetic studies of calcination process plays an important role in determining the gypsum product parameters. We are interested in knowing the time, temperature and rate at which the calcination process can be achieved. Initially a small amount of the gypsum material is taken and X- Ray diffraction studies are conducted on it to know its composition i.e. CaSO4. 2H2O or CaSO41/2 H2O or CaSO4 .Later after determining the form of gypsum material, thermogravimetric studies (used for the determination of weight change at different temperatures and time) are conducted on the CaSO4.2H2O to determine the temperature and time required to convert from dihydrate form to hemihydrate and anhydrite form. Again the obtained product is first subjected to XRD and SEM studies to investigate the state of gypsum i.e. dihydrate, hemihydrate or anhydrous form. This can be studied by interpreting the obtained results with the earlier established results. Later gypsum powder is subjected to different temperatures at different time intervals to determine the time and temperature required for the calcination process to finish by using Thermogravimetric Analysis Instrument also Differential Scanning Calorimetry (which determines the melting and boiling temperatures) studies are also conducted to know the melting temperatures of the product Until now the calcination process is studied by using a very small amount of the sample in a laboratory environment, the obtained results from these experiments is used to correlate with the calcination process which is done in hot air oven by using a large amount of samples. The temperature obtained from the thermogravimetric studies is used as basis for the calcination process in hot air oven. These studies are done to know the reproducibility for large scale samples. This encompasses the first step in our research. The importance of these kinetic studies related to calcination is very useful to determine the conditions for achieving the hemi hydride from calcium sulfate which undergoes rehydration process i.e is addition of water molecules to the hemi hydride form to form the gypsum wallboard. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO41/2H2O) or Calcium sulfate anhydrite (CaSO4) undergoes rehydration in the presence of water. Rehydration plays an important role as it allows to add the additives such as glass material, vermiculite etc. to the slurry which is referred as stucco. Chemically stucco is referred as the hemihydrate form of CaSO4. These additives are added to increase the fire resistant property in addition to the strength of the wallboards. The kinetic studies related to the rehydration process are studied similar to the calcination step. These kinetic studies gives us scope for better understanding the process of gypsum wallboard. i.e the amount of water required for rehydration and also the amount of additives that can be added to the gypsum mixture to retain the chemical stability of the gypsum composition required for the wallboard manufacturing. Similar to the first step this step is studied for the time, temperature and rate of reaction in the open environment and later in the laboratory environment by using kettle. In the kettle the hemihydrate and hydride forms of calcium are reacted with the water and the obtained product is subjected to the XRD and SEM studies to determine the state of product. This is the second step in our research. The final step in our research is the lab scale preparation of gypsum wallboard which involves the dihydrate form of calcium sulfate react with the sufficient amount of water to form slurry. Theoretically about 18.6 parts of water is required to react with the 100 parts of gypsum but to get a slurry, excess of water (about 80 to 85 parts) is reacted with 100 parts of gypsum. In this step water along with 10-30 wt. % of starch such as corn starch is added to obtain milk of starch. Next about 0.1 -1.5 wt.% of amolytic enzyme such as ÃŽ ± amylase based on the starch is added and heated to the decomposition point of the starch with stirring. After the heating is stopped enzyme deactivating agent based on the starch is added in the range of 0.8 to 1.0 wt. % and mixed with water to obtain a starch paste. To the prepared starch material the calcination product is added along with water and vermiculite, glass materials which improve the fire resistance property of the gypsum wallboard. This mixture is agitated in slow motion to obtain a slurry. This slurry form of gypsum is poured into a paper sheets such as paper boards. The edges of the paper is folded upwards to retain the slurry form of gypsum. The other end of the product is covered with another paper material which helps to retain the structure of the gypsum board. This mixture is subjected to heating by using hot air press which is useful to remove the excess water and to obtain a specific structure of the gypsum board. This process is continued until all the excess water is removed. It is dried in the temperature range of 50 ËÅ ¡C-200 ËÅ ¡C. Starch paste such as denatured starch and dextrin is used as an auxiliary adhesive to prevent calcination of the crystal of gypsum dihydrate and dehydrated to give a gypsum hemihydrate in drying at high temperatures. Also to prevent separation of the gypsum core member from both paper board, hardening modifier are added to the raw material of the gypsum core member. It is effective that starch paste along with water in the gypsum core member and both paper boards migrate during drying at high temperatures, and cover the crystal of gypsum dihydrate due to water retention capability of the starch paste which developed into the fiber of the paper boards so as to prevent the calcination and dehydration of the crystals. The obtained wallboard is subjected to different analytical techniques such as Thermogravimetric analysis, Thermomechanical analysis, XRD, SEM and Differential scanning calorimetry as discussed in the calcination and rehydration step. BUDGET AND BUDGET JUSTIFICATION LAB SCALE PREPARATION OF GYPSUM WALLBOARD: Materials and supplies: A minimum of 50 pounds of raw gypsum is required to make the gypsum wallboard and test its fire resistant property by adding the additives such as starch, dextrose, glass fibers. Initially a wallboard is made without adding any additives and for that about 5 pounds of the powder is used and tested for its properties. Similarly by adding the additives wallboard are made and tested for its properties. If the properties observed are similar to the standard fire resistant properties, variations in the additives is done and another wallboard is made to test for its fire resistant property. This procedure is followed until a wallboard with improved fire resistance is observed. REFERENC5 ASTM C1396/C1396 M-01. Standard specifications for gypsum board. ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA, 2001. Yu, L.; Brouwers, J.H. Thermal properties and microstructure of gypsum board and its dehydration products: A theoretical and experimental investigation. Fire mater.2012, 36,575-589. Baux,C.; Melinge , Y.; Lanos , C.; Jauberthie,, R. Enhanced gypsum board panels for fire protection. J. Mater civil eng. 2008, 20, 71-77. Isa, K.; Oruno, H. Thermal decomposition of calcium sulfate dehydrate under self-generated atmosphere.Bull. Chem.Soc.Jpn. 1982, 55, 3733-3737. Borrachero, M.V.; Paya, J.; Bonilla,M.; Monzo, J. The use of Thermogravimetric analysis technique for the characterization of construction materials-The gypsum case. J.Therm.Anal.Cal.2008, 91, 503-509. Anderson, L.; Jannson, B. Analytical fire design with gypsum: Atheoretical and experimental study. Lund, Institute of Fire Safety design, 1987. Green, G.W,; Sundberg, D.G. Fire resistant gypsum- core wallboard. U.S.Patent 3,616,173.1971. Freyer, D.; Voigt.W. Crystallization and phase stability of CaSO4 and CaSO4 based salts. Monatsch chem.2003, 134, 693-719. Sultan, M.A.; Roy, P. Gypsum board fall off temperature in floor assemblies exposed to standard fires. 11th International fire science engineering conference, London, UK, 2007, 979-991. Thomas,G. Thermal properties of gypsum plaster board at high temperatures. Fire mater, 2006, 26, 37-45. Benichou, N.; Sultan, M.A. Thermal properties of light weight framed construction components at elevated temperatures. Fire Mater.2007, 31, 425-442. Wakili, G.k.; Hugi, E. Four types of gypsum plaster boards and their Thermophysical properties under fire condition. J.Fire Sci. 2009, 27, 27-43. Beard, A.; Carvel, R. The hand book of tunnel fire safety, ed.; Thomas Telford publishing; Heron Quay, London, 2005. Elliott, C. Plaster of Paris Technology. Chem. Trade J. 1923, 72, 725-726. Manzello, S.L.; Gann, R.G.; Kukkuck, S.R.; Lenhert,D.B. Influence of gypsum board type (X or C) on real fire performance of assemblies. Fire Mater.2007, 31,425-442. BUDGET AND BUDGET JUSTIFICATION 1

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Prevention :: Environmental Economy Chemicals Essays

Prevention Prevention entails keeping all cleaning agents, gasoline, paints, glues, thinners, and other household products in locked or inaccessible cabinets. These products should never be used in closed spaces, and areas should be extensively aired out after product use. Even with adequate room ventilation, it is probably prudent to avoid exposing children altogether (see case 4, below). Tell parents to avoid bringing children to nail salons and to keep children out of newly remodeled rooms that may be off-gassing solvents from carpet and wallpaper glues. Dry-cleaning should be aired out in the yard or an open garage for one day before being brought into the house, and car windows should be open when transporting freshly dry-cleaned clothes. w). As in the home, art supplies used at school should be nontoxic. "Acceptable Children's Art and Craft Materials," a list of 2,500 nontoxic art materials, is available from the California Department of Health Services.34 Clinicians must be alert to pare nts who might be exposing their children to solvents in the home though a number of hobbies, including silk-screening, furniture restoration, model building, and illegal drug labs (an increasing problem in certain communities).35 Finally, children should be screened during the well-child interview for any drug abuse, including the use of "legal" substances such as solvents. The best way to dispose of solvents is to use them up as intended. Otherwise, solvents should be treated as hazardous waste and disposed through a licensed hazardous waste handler.36 † The interesting thing about this advice to try to avoid any contact with chemicals in our life is that it is impossible. If a breast fed baby is not able to avoid toxins, none of us are. For a day, I made a point to read the labels of products I used and food I ate. I found that most of the ingredients I could not pronounce and had no idea why it was in the product or what it did. I also learned that most of what I use and consume contains either high fructose corn syrup or sodium laureth sulfate or sodium lauryl sulfate. I do not think that is necessarily good but I only hope it isn’t really bad. From Now with Bill Moyers, transcript: MOYERS: Of the 3000 or so high production volume chemicals in use in this country today only 43% have been even minimally tested. Only about 10 percent have been thoroughly tested to examine their potential effects on body part was getting set up on that day of development.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Customers’ culture Essay

Once, one of our teachers told us that in order to ensure the success of our business, we must associate our potential products with the culture of our target market. It is in fact better if we are able to make our products become part of the customers’ culture itself. This is because doing so may not only translate to higher sales upon our entry to the market but, also, to a good amount of loyal customers. The more you position a product as if it is part of the customers’ daily lives, the more they would use it, the more they would demand for it. This may be great news for the entrepreneurs out there but is it also great news for the market that they are trying to penetrate? Coca-cola is one of the companies that I admire in terms of their marketing strategies. In my opinion, they are one of the companies that best produce advertisements and promos that fit consumer interests. I am often amazed how they manage to tweak various situations and events and put Coke in the picture to become part of our lives. I commend them for being so effective in making us feel what they want us to feel. On the contrary, I dislike them for being able to do so. Coca-cola’s ability to effectively deliver messages through certain media also gives them the power to influence numerous people just in a few moments. That saying, it would only take Coca-cola or any other firm a few moments to change a part of our lives somehow the way they want to without us knowing. The 1950s commercial of the company in the Philippines clearly showed us various things about the country, the Filipinos, our culture, and how their product became part of us. It was reflected in the advertisement how the entry of foreign entities gradually changed our way of doing things. We became more civil in the eyes of the foreigners; however, we’ve became rude for forgetting a part of our culture. From having get together of villagers that is full of dances and accompanied by food and drinks to backyard gatherings wherein people just sit, talk and eat sandwiches and juices. From enjoying native Filipino sports such as Sepak Takraw to becoming a lover of western sports. Slowly we are embracing the culture that wasn’t ours but was just merely injected by the foreign entities that came to our country. A perfect depiction of this scenario was a painting done by Antipas Delotavo entitled â€Å"Ang Itak sa Puso ni Mang  Juan†. In his painting, a Filipino old m an can be seen standing, with his shoulders dropped, head slightly bowed down, and face looking sad. His posture and gesture resembles that of a man who has just surrendered and no longer has the power to continue the fight. On the background, the famous logo of Coca-cola can be seen. It was the tail of the company’s letter â€Å"C†, however, that made the painting more interesting. The tail of the letter â€Å"C† was shaped like that of a dagger and was pointed to the heart of the old man. The Coca-cola background shows how the Western companies have dominated us in a way that we are unaware of. They have become bigger and managed to penetrate our land and countrymen without us noticing it immediately. They showed us how better off we are and will be with them operating in our lands as they said in the commercial. The only difference now is that these foreign entities were able to restructure their strategies and sugar coated their way to us. The coming in of these foreign firms and other entities is like a dagger to us, our culture, and our country because although we could say that we are improving economically speaking; we are placed in a situation that endangers our identity as a Filipino citizen. Unfortunately, we are almost giving up.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Animal Experimentation Should Be Eliminated - 1656 Words

Is it really necessary to use and abuse animals in medical research? People’s opinions on this topic will vary but as strong as an opinion can be, there is more to it than just that. After reading a lot of different articles on animal testing, it has not been as beneficial to humans as we think. People misunderstand the cruelty and torture animals are put through in their lives, and are unaware or just simply don’t understand the procedures and techniques that they endure. Animal experimentation should be eliminated. Animal testing is unethical and inhumane and should be eliminated, seeing as there are safer ways to test products. Innocent animals are locked inside cages in laboratories languishing in pain. All they want to do is roam free but instead they ache with loneliness. Annually over one hundred million animals are used for a variety of painful and torturous experimentations, also knows as vivisection, every year – without accountability. Animals used for experiments did not choose to donate their bodies to science. All they can do is wait for the next for the next terrifying and painful procedure that will be performed on them. Animals should not be experimented on because they are living, sentient beings. There are alternatives due to modern and up coming technology, and because the majority of what is tested on animals fails in humans. (The State of Animal Research) â€Å"Only approximately one percent of animals utilized in research are covered by the Animal WelfareShow MoreRelatedAnimal Experimentation And Its Effects On Human Life And Survival965 Words   |  4 PagesInstructor Miguel Ma rrero English 1302 September 18, 2014 Animal Experimentation The various experiments are performed on living animals especially to test the effects of chemical compounds such as new drugs, cosmetics, food additives and pesticides. The application of animals to test a large number of products from household compounds and cosmetics to pharmaceutical has been considered to be a normal strategy for many years. Animal experimentation has existed since ancient times and contributed to humanRead More Its Time to Stop Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation1594 Words   |  7 PagesTime to Stop Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation    Using animals in research and to test the safety of products has been a topic of heated debate for decades. According to data collected by F. Barbara Orlans for her book, In the Name of Science: Issues in Responsible Animal Experimentation, sixty percent of all animals used in testing are used in biomedical research and product-safety testing (62). People have different feelings for animals; many look upon animals as companionsRead MorePersuasive Essay On Animal Testing1394 Words   |  6 PagesAccording to the Laboratory Animal Resource Center, â€Å"more than 100 million animals are killed in experiments each year in the United States† (qtd. in Technology). Animal experimentation is a scientific process that tests chemical substances on animal subjects versus human subjects to see how they react with the different body systems. This process has been used all over the world, but today, it is used in very few places around the world. Animal experimentation can be used f or cosmetic research toRead MoreThe Facts About Animal Experimentation1138 Words   |  5 PagesThe Facts About Animal Experimentation Animal experimentation is the use of animals in research or projects involving the safety of foods, drugs, or other substances. It is a part of almost everything we use in our everyday lives. These tests can be performed on a variety of animals. There are also many different ways to perform these tests. Animal testing affects all of the lives around us. Both animals and humans are affected by this in a range of different ways. Animal testing can be shown throughRead MoreAnimal Rights : Where Are The Limits?1680 Words   |  7 PagesAdrianna Steele Dr. Beutel ENG 101 November 18, 2014 Animal Rights: Where Are The Limits? Do animals deserve the natural rights humans have? Animals are being kept captive in science labs to test many things. In research labs they are used to test many trivial products and they are also used in valuable medical research. Many animal right activists go as far as breaking the law as an attempt to get the point across about the wellbeing of animals in science labs instead of being civil about the mannerRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Animal Testing1502 Words   |  7 Pagesthat animal testing is beneficial to the advancement of human knowledge, while animal rights’ activists claim that animal testing is not humane and violates animals’ rights. The controversy over animal testing is best understood as a disagreement about whether animal testing is beneficial to humans. Each year more than 100 million animals are killed in the U.S. Every country has a law that permits medical experimentation on animals. While some countries protect particular kinds of anima ls fromRead MoreEssay about Animal Rights1553 Words   |  7 Pagesissue of animal experimentation is a widely debated topic in the United States. A fundamental question of this debate is whether the functions of animal testing and research are morally and ethically justified. In the viewpoint of the pro-research community, animal testing is a necessary practice. They support this position by stating that humans, instinctually, prioritize their own survival above other animals thus making any use of animals justifiable (Fox 5). The supporters of animal testing believeRead MoreAnimal Testing: What if You Were in Their Place? Essay1621 Words   |  7 Pageschemicals into the eyes of the animal to see how much irritation it will cause, a process known as the Draize eye irritancy test (Rabbits in Laboratories | PETA.org. 1). The test is certainly not pain free; it often causes distress, such as redness, swelling, and sometimes blindness. After the rabbits are finished being toyed wit h, they are killed (Rabbits in Laboratories | PETA.org. 1). The Draize eye irritancy test is just one of the thousands of examples of profuse animal testing that has been goingRead MoreEssay about Animal Testing605 Words   |  3 PagesAnimals have long sense been a part of human life. The dog for example is thought to have been the first animal to be domesticated by humans, sometime around 13,000–10,000 B.C., from wolves. It is not known for sure how humans gained the trust of the Canines but in any event they did, and soon found dogs to be reliable companions. Animals have aided us any many ways, from offering protection and companionship. They should be respected and loved for loyalty; however it has been a very common practiceRead MoreAnimal Rights : Animal Or Its Organs And Tissues Are Used1335 Words   |  6 Pagesthe experimental procedures, either a whole animal or its organs and tissues are used. For this purpose animals are euthanized (killed) by established metho ds. Many times, the animals surviving the clinical testing are euthanized at the end of an experiment to avoid the later pain and distress (Rusche, 2003). In some cases (for example in LD 50 analysis) animals die as a result of the experiment. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating

Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Theory of Finance and the Business Investments the Business and the Financial Risks Free Essay Example, 5000 words

The managers of the firms take credit rating aspect into consideration at the time of making decisions relating to capital structure. For instance, it was reported by Wall Street Journal (2004) that EDS used the equity route to raise $1 billion in order to avoid and downgrade in its credit ratings. As reported by Barrons (2003) Lear Corp lowered its debt level in order to receive a higher bond rating from the BB-plus from the credit rating agency Standard Poors. In 2002, it was reported by WSJ that the Fiat company was working towards narrowing down its debt exposure on fears of a possible credit rating downgrade. In the studies conducted by Graham Harvey (2001), it has been revealed that credit ratings are considered to be crucial by the company CFO at the time of capital structure determination. Nearly 57% of the CFOs admit that the credit ratings play an important role in the choice of equity and debt. In fact, it has been reported by Graham Harvey that credit ratings are more crucial than various factors recommended by the traditional theories on a capital structure like interest tax shield. We will write a custom essay sample on The Theory of Finance and the Business Investments: the Business and the Financial Risks or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The level of credit ratings determines whether certain investor groups like pension funds or banks can invest in the bonds issued by the firm. Moreover, the credit ratings give information to the market participants with regard to firm quality thereby influencing their investment behaviour. If the market participants consider ratings to be informative, the firms are grouped on the basis of this rating and therefore any change in the ratings leads to distinct changes in the cost of capital of the firm. Other than this, a change in the credit rating can trigger events that can result in various costs like a change in the coupon rate of the bond, loss of valuable contract or make commercial paper market inaccessible. The empirical tests conducted by Kisgen evaluate whether the decisions relating to the capital structure are impacted by credit rating concerns. His studies reveal that business entities with a rating of minus or plus like AA- or AA+ issue lesser amount of debt as compared to firms that do not have a rating of minus or plus like AA.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Sociology Of Rape Culture - 1524 Words

In feminist theory, rape culture is a setting in which rape is pervasive and normalized due to societal attitudes about gender and sexuality. The sociology of rape culture is studied academically by feminists. There is disagreement over what defines a rape culture and as to whether any given societies meet the criteria to be considered a rape culture. The notion of rape culture has been used to describe and explain behavior within social groups, including prison rape, and in conflict areas where war rape is used as psychological warfare. Entire societies have been alleged to be rape cultures. Evidence suggests that rape culture is correlated with other social factors and behaviors. Rape myths, victim blaming, and trivialization of rape have been found to be positively correlated with racism, sexism, homophobia, ageism, classism, religious intolerance, and other forms of discrimination. Origins and usage The term rape culture was first coined in the 1970s in the United States by second wave feminists, and was applied to contemporary American culture as a whole. During the 1970s, second-wave feminists had begun to engage in consciousness-raising efforts designed to educate the public about the prevalence of rape. Previously, according to Canadian psychology professor Alexandra Rutherford, most Americans assumed that rape, incest, and wife-beating rarely happened. The concept of rape culture posited that rape was common and normal in American culture, and that it was oneShow MoreRelatedGender Socialization : The Real World1442 Words   |  6 Pagesto act a certain way based on their â€Å"gender†. Through the following agents: family, schools, peers, and media, gender socialization is emphasized and made very real in the world today. The definition of gender in the sociology textbook, The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology, is â€Å"the physical, behavioral, and personality traits that a group considers normal for its male and female members† (Ferris and Stein 243). The textbook defines socialization as â€Å"the process of learning and internalizingRead Moreâ€Å"Do not judge me by my successes, judge me by how many times I fell down and got back up again.† –700 Words   |  3 Pagesthat I am able to succeed with my degree in Sociology. ***↠- how can I show this without saying I am determined to succeed. Transition: One of the greatest accomplishments I have achieved in Sociology, consisted of my research for the anthropology and sociology conference. Anthropologists and Sociologists of Kentucky; my research was on Slutwalk, which is an international social movement that challenges assumptions about rape culture, particularly rape myths. This movement empowers women by organizingRead MoreHalf the Sky Documentary Evaluation1025 Words   |  5 PagesHalf the Sky is a movie that discusses the oppression of women around the world. It brings to light the issues that, even in todays society, are still occurring. Women, young adults, and children everywhere in the world are becoming victims to abuse, rape, and being deprived of getting an education. This film documents Nikolas Kristof going around the world with the help of well known people in America to show some of the issues and some organizations that are working to change the way society viewsRead MoreSocietys Construction of Reality Essay711 Words   |  3 Pagesif not greater reactions which changes the way society functions. Society is composed of norms and sanctions. Norms are rules which mandate which things people should or should not do, say, or think in different situations(from: Sociology An Introduction). Norms are both written and non-written. The more flexible non-written norms are called folkways. These unspoken social rules know as folkways are usually ideas or habits that society has developed overtime and which are done asRead MoreThe Difference Between Commonsense Assumption and Sociology Expiation710 Words   |  3 PagesThe Difference Between Commonsense Assumption and Sociology Expiation Commonsense assumption is the subjective idea of human being, which represents the view that everybody knows about the social world or human behavior. Moreover, each individual has different exposition of it, which depends on the own experience, class, race, background, occuption, education, family and etc. in other words, these assumptions can be explained in terms of an individualistic and naturalisticRead MoreConsensus and Conflict Theory Approaches to Combat Sexual Assault1491 Words   |  6 PagesSexual Assault The impact of sexual assault and rape is devastating to our community and culture. This terrible crime has been around for longer than records have been kept. Throughout world history, the primary targets of these crimes have been women but not exclusively limited to women. Sexual related crimes are crimes of power rather than crimes of passion or lust. These are crimes of ignorance that continue because it is tolerated by both man and society. First, we as a society have toRead More The Reality of Rape Essay1651 Words   |  7 Pages Running head: THE REALITY OF RAPE nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Rape is a crime of violence and aggression that not only hurts a victim for the moment, but it shatters her entire life. According to the Britannica Encyclopedia, rape is defined as â€Å"any kind of unlawful sexual activity, usually sexual intercourse, carried out forcibly or under threat of injury and against the will of the victim.† This definition has been redefined to cover same-sex attacks and attacks against those who are incapableRead MoreShould College Campuses Be Safe Learning Environments?1648 Words   |  7 Pagesis rape. The latter grew, in a rampant way, in and around college halls. A crime, whose physical scars may heal, its psychological effects may last for years, and sometimes even a lifetime. Indeed, recent surfacing incidents of sexual assaults, and of male students’ crude language and impertinent behavior towards female students, have brought campus rape into the focus of the public eye. These incidents were reported in bot h western and eastern countries. 1.1 General Overview of Campus rape Read MoreSexual Assault Against Women During The United States1381 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction to Sociology Montgomery College September 26, 2014 â€Æ' Violence against women has been ever-present throughout time and place in our world and in recorded history. Although violence against women encompasses a whole range of related acts, rape and sexual assault perpetrated against women is the focus of this paper. Men and boys are also victims of sexual assault, but the numbers of women who are sexual assaulted are much higher. We will be examining the definition of rape, the effectsRead MoreExplain How Culture and Socialisation Interact in a Sociological Context1719 Words   |  7 PagesExplain how culture and socialisation interact in a sociological context? Culture is our knowledge we gain from birth as a result of our immersement into our cultural group. Socialisation is the way in which we learn this information we gain from such contact. When we look at the two ‘Culture and Socialisation’ and study how this interaction occurs, what is gained, changed, modified, etc we are defining the interaction of culture and socialisation and how they react to each other we are using ‘Sociology’